Individuals who offer health care and treatment procedures that fall outside the mainstream of conventional medical practice.
Individuals who diagnose and treat patients whose health problems are associated with the body's muscular, nervous and skeletal systems, especially the spine. When difficulties can be traced to the involvement of musculoskeletal structures, chiropractors manually adjust the spinal column. Some chiropractors use water, light, massage, ultrasound, electric and heat therapy; and may apply supports such as straps, tapes and braces.
Individuals who specialize in the care of the teeth and associated structures in the oral cavity and provide for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the teeth and gums either as licensed professionals or as support staff.
Individuals who plan food and nutrition programs and supervise the preparation and serving of meals. They help to prevent and treat illnesses by promoting healthy eating habits and recommending dietary modifications such as the use of less salt for those with high blood pressure or the reduction of fat and sugar intake for those who are overweight. Dietitians manage food service systems for institutions such as hospitals and schools; provide dietetic and nutritional services for individuals served by public health clinics, home health agencies, health maintenance organizations or their own private practice; promote sound eating habits through education; and conduct research.
Individuals who diagnose, manage and treat conditions and diseases of the human eye and visual system.
Individuals who perform various duties under the direction of a physician or nursing staff in the examination and treatment of patients. Included are home health aides, medical assistants and physician assistants who work directly with physicians, nurses and surgeons; EMTs who provide emergency medical assistance at the scene of an accident or other incident; medical laboratory technicians; and individuals such as diagnostic medical sonographers and nuclear medicine technicians who administer specialized diagnostic tests.
Individuals who assist medical doctors with their work, deal with emergencies in their absence and provide nursing care for people who are sick or injured, have physical or mental disabilities or others in need of such care. They work to promote health, prevent disease and help patients cope with illness; and serve as advocates and health educators for patients, families and communities. Included are registered nurses, licensed vocational nurses and nursing assistants.
Individuals who dispense drugs prescribed by physicians and other health practitioners and provide information to patients about medications and their use. They may also provide advice on how to lead a healthy lifestyle, conduct health and wellness screenings, provide flu shots and other immunizations, and oversee the medications given to patients. Retail pharmacists (also known as community pharmacists) work in retail stores such as chain drug stores or independently owned pharmacies. They dispense medications to the public and answer any questions about prescriptions, over-the-counter medications, or health concerns. Clinical pharmacists work in hospitals, clinics and other health care settings and are involved in direct patient care. They may go on rounds in a hospital with a physician or health care team, recommend medications to give to patients and oversee the dosage and timing of the delivery of those medications. They may also conduct some medical tests and offer advice to patients, e.g., pharmacists working in a diabetes clinic may counsel patients on how and when to take medications, suggest healthy food choices, and monitor patients' blood sugar. Consultant pharmacists provide advice about the medication regimens of patients, primarily those in institutional settings such as nursing facilities, assisted living facilities and other long term care environments. They may also give advice directly to patients, e.g., helping seniors manage their prescriptions. Compounding pharmacists make custom drugs prescribed by doctors for specific patients with needs that can't be met by commercially available drugs.
Individuals who diagnose illnesses and prescribe and administer treatment for people suffering from injury or disease. Physicians examine patients; obtain medical histories; order, perform and interpret diagnostic tests; and counsel patients on diet, hygiene and preventive health care. Surgeons are physicians who specialize in the treatment of injury, disease and deformity through operations. Using a variety of instruments, and with patients under general or local anesthesia, a surgeon corrects physical deformities, repairs bone and tissue after injuries or performs preventive surgeries on patients with debilitating diseases or disorders. Physicians work in one or more specialties including anesthesiology, family and community medicine, general internal medicine, general pediatrics, obstetrics and gynecology, allergy, cardiology, dermatology, gastroenterology, radiology and surgery.
Individuals who provide treatment services for people with disabilities, disorders and injuries to relieve pain, develop or restore function, prevent muscular deconditioning and maintain optimum performance.
Individuals who provide diagnostic, treatment and health care management services for pets, and livestock, zoo, sporting and laboratory animals who have illnesses, injuries or other medical problems. Most veterinarians perform clinical work in private practices and most predominately, or exclusively, treat small animals. Small animal practitioners care for companion animals such as dogs and cats, but also treat birds, reptiles, rabbits and other animals that can be kept as pets. Other veterinarians work in mixed animal practices where they see pigs, goats, sheep and some nondomestic animals in addition to companion animals. A small number of private practice veterinarians work exclusively with large animals, focusing mostly on horses or cows. Some also care for various kinds of food animals. Veterinarians in clinical practice diagnose animal health problems; vaccinate against diseases such as distemper and rabies; medicate animals suffering from infections or illnesses; treat and dress wounds; set fractures; perform surgery; and advise owners about animal feeding, behaviour and breeding.
The above terms and definitions are part of the Taxonomy of Human Services, used here by permission of INFO LINE of Los Angeles.