Programs broadly available to individuals with disabilities in general (rather than focusing on special groups within the disability population) that provide vocational assessment, job development, job training, job placement, specialized job situations and/or other supportive services that help people with disabilities prepare for, find and retain paid employment.
Programs that provide opportunities for individuals with disabilities to learn and practice work skills in a separate and supported environment. Participants may be involved in the program on a transitional or ongoing basis, and are paid for their work, generally under a piecework arrangement. The nature of the work and the types of disabilities represented in the workforce vary widely by program and by the area in which the organization is located. Individuals participate in centre-based employment for a variety of reasons including severity of disability, need for additional training or experience, need for a protected environment and/or lack of availability of community-based employment.
Programs that provide comprehensive support services for ex-offenders who need assistance preparing for, finding and retaining paid employment. Services may include vocational assessment; guidance relating to resume preparation, job application letters and questionnaires, interview techniques, appropriate dress and personal-social behaviours that will allow them to get along with employers and co-workers on the job; job skills development support; job placement assistance; limited periods of subsidized employment, where necessary; and/or on-the-job support, as required, by a personal case manager who may visit the individual while at work, meet with the person's supervisor and/or co-workers and provide whatever assistance the ex-offender needs to meet the challenges of entering the workforce and retain his or her position.
Programs that provide comprehensive assessment, ongoing case management, work readiness, job training, job development, job placement services, post-placement follow-up and/or supportive services that are tailored to the specific needs of homeless individuals who need assistance preparing for, finding and retaining paid employment. Many programs specifically target outreach and enrollment efforts on homeless individuals or specific groups within the homeless population (e.g., homeless veterans, homeless youth, homeless individuals with serious mental illness, permanent supportive housing residents); and some partner with other organizations working with people who are homeless such as local mental health agencies; one-stop career centres; community-based nonprofit vocational rehabilitation agencies; case management organizations; housing agencies; and the local public housing authority.
Programs that provide comprehensive support services for immigrants and refugees who need assistance to prepare for, find and retain paid employment. Services may include vocational assessment, job search assistance, professional mentoring programs and other levels of initial and ongoing support. The emphasis is on preparing individuals for the expectations of employment in a new country and in particular, to obtain recognition for professional experience secured in another country and to obtain initial work experience in their new country.
Programs that provide comprehensive support services for indigenous people who need assistance preparing for, finding and retaining paid employment. Services may include vocational assessment, job search assistance and other levels of initial and ongoing support. Included are specific federal incentive programs such as the Aboriginal Workforce Participation Initiative in addition to economic resource development projects in which approval is dependant on commitments that ensure the employment of First Nations for Inuit people.
Programs that place people who need work and are having difficulty competing on the open job market in organizations that can use their skills and subsidize the position by paying their salary, generally minimum wage. Some programs target public assistance recipients and place them in subsidized positions in nonprofit organizations.
Programs that find paid, meaningful work in a variety of community-based settings for people who have disabilities and which assign a "job coach" to work side-by-side with each client to interface with the employer and other employees, training in basic job skills and work-related behaviours, assistance with specific tasks as needed and whatever other initial or ongoing support is required to ensure that the individual retains competitive employment. Included are individual placement models in which a job coach works on-the-job with a single individual and group models such as enclaves (which are self-contained work units of people needing support) and mobile work crews, in which a group of workers with disabilities receives continuous support and supervision from supported employment personnel. In the enclave model, groups of people with disabilities are trained to work as a team alongside employees in the host business supported by a specially trained on-site supervisor, who may work either for the host company or the placement agency. A variation of the enclave approach is called the "dispersed enclave" and is used in service industries (e.g., restaurants and hotels). Each person works on a separate job, and the group is dispersed throughout the company. In the mobile work crew model, a small team of people with disabilities works as a self-contained business and undertakes contract work such as landscaping and gardening projects. The crew works at various locations in a variety of settings within the community under the supervision of a job coach.
Programs that provide vocational assessment, retraining, reemployment assistance and, if necessary, limited support payments for workers who have lost their jobs or had their hours or wages reduced as a result of significant changes in employment related to a specific industry. These changes are often related to economic trade adjustments (e.g. competition in the steel industry) or the depletion of primary resources (e.g. mining and fisheries). Workers must be directly engaged in employment involving the specific industry or sector to qualify, so these programs do not apply to workers in service industries whose jobs have been outsourced to other countries.
Programs that provide resume preparation assistance, career counselling, vocational assessment, job development, job training, job search, job placement and/or other services for unemployed veterans who need assistance re-entering the workforce. Veteran employment programs may be configured for recently separated veterans, homeless veterans, veterans with service-connected disabilities and other special populations or may be broadly available to veterans in general.
Programs operated by provincial agencies or local jurisdictions that offer employment training and supportive services (such as child care, transportation costs, ancillary expenses and personal counselling) for people who are receiving public assistance in an effort to help them become self-supporting. Private organizations, often under contract with a public agency, may be involved in both the provision of training and on-the-job work experience (including volunteering in nonprofit agencies). Public assistance recipients are required to participate in designated program activities a minimum number of hours per week in order to receive their monthly income support payment and supplemental payments for support services.
Programs that provide vocational assessment, job development, job training, job search, job placement, specialized job situations and/or other supportive services for unemployed and/or underemployed youth who need assistance preparing for, finding and retaining paid employment. Services may include summer jobs at community worksites; internships, job-shadowing and entrepreneurial projects; and work-readiness training that focuses on resume preparation, job application letters and questionnaires, interview techniques, appropriate dress and personal appearance, work ethic values and other "soft skills" that are required for job retention. Youth employment programs may be configured for at-risk youth, students, low-income youth and other special populations or may be broadly available to youth in general.
The above terms and definitions are part of the Taxonomy of Human Services, used here by permission of INFO LINE of Los Angeles.