Programs that help people make appropriate decisions regarding the sequence of occupational roles or work experiences through which they will move during their working lives.
Programs that provide training that is designed to enable employees to perform a job that their previous training has not equipped them for or to adapt to changes in the workplace. Retraining may be needed when new methods or equipment are introduced or when jobs for which employees have trained are phased out. It may also be provided by employers or governments for employees who have been laid off and are no longer able to find employment using the skills they already possess. The need for retraining may arise because of a decline in a particular industry sector or because of rapid technological change.
Programs that provide financial assistance or loans to help people pay for tuition, books, living expenses, transportation, disability supports, assistance in caring for dependents and/or other costs associated with acquiring skills training.
Programs that offer apprenticeships, training through business practice firms, classroom training, internships, on-the-job training, work experience or other formats for training that prepares people for specific types of employment. The training may feature formal instruction in an institutional classroom setting, hands-on experience at a job site under varying arrangements or a combination of the two as the means by which trainees acquire the skills required to perform the job.
Programs that respond to requests from businesses, labour unions and other employee groups that are facing impending layoffs and want to arrange for supportive services for affected workers. Services may include counselling; assistance in filing employment insurance forms; and information about public and private sector employment services including resources for vocational assessment, career counselling, retraining opportunities, money management assistance and options for financial aid.
Programs that provide training in the technical competencies unique to a specific occupation that are required for successful workplace performance. The training may be delivered in a variety of ways including apprenticeships, business practice firms, classroom training, internships, OJT or work experience; or may take place in a combination of settings, on-the-job training supported by formal classroom training, for example, or classroom training followed by an internship.
Programs that provide instruction for people who need to acquire the basic "soft skills" and tools that are required to successfully apply for and secure employment, and retain a position once they have been hired. These programs provide information and guidance regarding preparing a resume, writing job application letters, completing job application questionnaires, responding to job ads and taking employment tests; offer tips regarding appropriate dress, personal appearance and interview techniques; and address other similar topics.
Programs that provide individual and group instruction and/or counselling for individuals with disabilities (including mental health issues) who need to develop physical and emotional tolerance for work demands and pressures; acquire personal-social behaviours that will allow them to get along with employers and co-workers on the job; and develop the basic manual, academic and communications skills that are needed to acquire basic job skills.
Programs that administer tests which measure an individual's skills, abilities, interests, personality traits and other attributes for success in different occupational areas or specific positions. Also included are programs that allow people to "try out" jobs in the community for short periods of time to determine whether there is a fit and, in the case of people with disabilities, to determine the type of supports the individual might require to succeed if hired for that type of job.
The above terms and definitions are part of the Taxonomy of Human Services, used here by permission of INFO LINE of Los Angeles.